Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA, a 50 kDa tetramer) is a mannose-specific lectin of the Amaryllidaceae family of bulb lectins. Crystal structures of GNA complexed with methyl-alpha-D-mannose (MeMan) and mannose-alpha 1,3-D-mannose-alpha-OMe (MeMan-2) have been determined and analyzed in terms of internal structural symmetry and saccharide binding. The final model of the A orthorhombic methyl-alpha-Man complex refined with an R-factor of (all data) includes 12 bound sugar ligands and 327 water molecules. The four independent subunits (A, B, C and D) of the 222 tetramer and the three four-stranded beta-sheets (I,II and III) that constitute each subunit compare closely (. delta = < A). The 12 bound methyl-alpha-Man molecules refined with B-factors < 22 A2 and occupancies in the range of to . The highest occupied site is located in beta-sheet I (site 1), where interactions from the dimer-related subunit contribute to complex stabilization. These subunit pairs (A-D and B-C) associate tightly with a buried surface area of 1738 A2 and 33 interchain hydrogen bonds resulting from C-terminal strand exchange. In comparison, the A-B and C-D subunit pairs have narrow interfaces (476 A2) and no direct H-bond contacts. The A structure of the cubic Man-alpha 1,3-Man-OMe complex, determined by molecular replacement and refined with X-PLOR using NCS constraints and density modification methods, is less well ordered due to a high crystal solvent content (68%). Complexed disaccharide is responsible for the most crucial lattice contacts, which involve only one of the two independent subunits (A). The second subunit (C) shows a high degree of flexibility (Bav = A2). The complete disaccharide molecule is visible in both subunits at site 3, which is the only extended site. The ligand is oriented with its reducing end positioned in the specificity pocket. The non-reducing manose is in contact through hydrogen bonding with a charged subsite (D37-K38) on the 2-fold-related subunit (A-B or C-D interfaces). Bound Man-alpha 1,3-MeMan is also well defined in site 2 of subunit A, as a result of favorable lattice contacts, while only the mannose residue bound in the specificity pocket is visible at site 2 of subunit C and site 1 of both subunits. Together these results suggest that strong binding correlates with the presence of subsidiary contacts coming either from a dimer-related subunit or from lattice interactions. Site 1 is most specific for terminal non-reducing or reducing mannose, while site 3 is extended and complementary to alpha-1,3 linked mannose oligosaccharides.
Despite her rough mannerisms, she is not without compassion. She reluctantly took 2B's life at her request, so that she would not suffer through the agony and insanity of the logic-virus deteriorating her mind. She allowed Pascal to live in spite of her virulent hatred for Machines when she realized that he was docile. She later assisted him by protecting the Machine children at the Abandoned Factory. She also expressed sadness over the death of the Machine children as well as sympathy for Paschel, who had been driven to despair. She continuously spared and reached out to 9S, despite the latter's numerous attempts on her life, in the hopes that he could return to his kind-natured self.