Schön, D. (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner , San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 355 + xvii pages. Development of the thinking in the 1983 book with sections on understanding the need for artistry in professional education; the architectural studio as educational model for reflection-in-action; how the reflective practicum works; and implications for improving professional education. (For a useful critique see M. Eraut  Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence , London: Falmer; and R. Usher et al (1997) Adult Education and the Postmodern Challenge , London: Routledge). The idea of reflection-in-action is explored in M. K. Smith (1994) Local Education , Buckingham: Open University Press.